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MARGINIMEA SIBIULUI
Frumusete veche, fara pret

 

Pentru ca si-au ridiat casele pe vechea frontiera austro-ungara din sudul Transilvaniei , acolo unde se intalnesc dealul cu muntele, oamenilor, ale caror obiceiuri venind din negura timpului sunt vii si astazi, li sa spus “margineni”.

La vest de Sibiu, o salba de sate romanesti carora le-a priit de minune aerul civilizatiei sasesti alcatuieste cea ce se numeste de secole incoace “ Marginimea”.La rasarit, ea incepe  cu satul Boita, pe dreapta Oltului, acolo unde se intra in defileul purtand acelasi nume. La apus, Jina vesteste celalalt capat, iar hotar sunt apele Sebesului. Oierii, vietuind in comunitati bine inchegate, au durat case de brad, acoperisuri inalte, protejate cu sindrila. Aici, in tihna si cu temeinicie pe care surgerea  vremii n-a slabit-o, ei si-au vazut mai departe de mestesuguri, intre care lucrul lanii si al pieilor a dat masura maiestriei lor.

De cand se stiu, oamenii se indeletnicesc cu cresterea animalelor. Pastorii isi duceau turmele din pasune in pasune, pana peste Dunare, chiar spre Constantinopol sau Adriatica, dincolo de Tisa in Polonia, iar spre rasarit atingeau Caucazul. Intre cele mai vestite asezari ale Marginimii Sibiului se rostesc nume ca Saliste, Sibiel, Tilisca, Rasinari, Poiana Sibiului, Miercurea Sibiului, Poplaca, Orlat, Fantanele, Jina. Iata si ce spun unele dintre cele mai venerabile “ certificate de nastere” :
Rasinari – 1204, Talmaciu – 1318, Orlat – 1322, Saliste – 1354. Aceasta lume i-a dat lumii mari, mai catre zilele noastre, pe Cioran, pe Noica si pe Goga.

INTRE CETATI SI ICOANE

Satele si-au pastrat bine bisericile fortificate.Cea din Cisnadioara, ridicata la 1233, domina imprejurimile, de pe inaltimea asa-numitului Deal al Cetatii. Legenda spune ca la Tilisca, cetatea dacica a fost ridicata chiar de catre regele Burebista. Acestui loc incarcat  de colbul greu al istoriei i se alatura, in Marginime, cunoscuta cetate de la Cristian, cladita la 1945, ori ea de la Calnic, care dainuie tocmai din 1250. Merita de asemenea desoperite cu pasul cetatea Salgo si bisericile fortificate sasesti. Macar un popas se cere la Cetatea  Scurta din Orlat (cladita la 1317), la Moara de hartie din aceeasi localitate – cea mai veche din sud-estul Europei, fiind ridicata in 1524, la biserica fortificata din Dobarca. Treatorii fie ei turisti ori localnici, le privesc si simt in fata lor veneratie.

La Sibiel, muzeul de icoane pe sticla, unic in lume, adaposteste  peste 700 de piese, adevarate minuni zamilsite de mana omului stapanit de frumos si divin. Picturile de acest fel  sunt roadele unui obicei pastrat in Maginime de mai bine de doua veacuri. Cea mai veche biserica pictata se afla la Saliste, din 1674. Biserica de lemn din Poiana Sibiului dateaza de la 1771, iar cea din Talmacel din 1776. La randul sau, muzeul satesc de la Rasinari isi infatiseaza zestrea de ceramica, mobila pictata, lucruri de-ale casei si gospodariei, in toata simplitatea lor odihnitoare si cuceritoare totodata. Costumele populare s-au adunat si dansele intr-o preafrumoasa colectie, la Gales, dupa  cum cartile sfinte cu varste venerabile si obiectele de cult si-au gasit adapost la muzeul parohiei ortodoxe.

VIATA, CA OBICEI DE SARBATOARE

In constiinta oamenilor  din Mariginime au dainuit drepturile  din batrani , venind tocmai de la cele dantai nezate romanesti . Cunoscatorii profunzi si subtili ai naturii, in inima careia traiesc armonios de sute de ani ei exerseaza mai departe, nestingheriti, firescul lucrurilor, firescul lumii. Obiceiurile, avand raacini atat de adanci, s-au consolidat, abia bagand in seama asalturile modernismului. Oamenii locului continua sa-si poarte cu mandrie straiele de sarbatoare, aceste minunate si de o eleganta desavarsita haine brodate in alb si negru. Duminica, si de   sarbatori, la biserica, ori pe ulitele satelor, pieptarele si cojoacele infloresc in soare cu motive seducatoare, tesute din matase.

Cele mai importante obiceiuri ale marginenilor se redescopera cu prilejul sarbatorilor de iarna. Sunt unice “ Colindatul feciorilor” si “ Ceata junilor”. Intre dansuri, cele barbatesti precum Calusarii, Braul si Sarba, nu au nici ele pereche. Sarbatorile tin 12 zile, din Ajunul Craciunului pana la celebrarea Sfantului Ion, are se petrece pe 7 ianuarie. Colindul, obicei  din cele mai vechi la toti romanii, se porneste in Marginimea Sibiului cu copii si isi desfasoara spectacolul  mai departe cu cetele de flacai, care infatiseaza craii in toate zilele. In a patra zi de Craciun, are loc o mare adunare: tinerii din asezarile Marginimii, ba hiar din judetele apropiate, precum Alba, Brasov, Valcea, se intalnesc in piata din Saliste si se prind in hora unirii.

Lasata Secului sau intrarea in Postul Pastelui este marcata prin aprinderea unor fouri pe coastele dealurilor din apropierea satelor. Pe 23 aprilie este sabatorit Sangeorzul, o traditie inchinata primaverii regeneratoare, vietii.Sanzienele, un alt obicei dintre cele mai stravechi, care s-a pastrat intr-o frumusete nealterata de ritmurile moderne, se petrec pe 24 iunie. Si sa nu uitam ca ne aflam in imparatia oierilor: tunsul mieilor se face pe 20 iulie, de Sfantul Ilie, iar de 1 august este ziua ursului, Macovei, zi de post. La nunta, se impodobesc cu dragoste portile caselor in care locuiesc tinerii miri, iar cand vine momentul potrivit se inchide drumul nuntasilor. Numai mirele si cel ales sa le fie insurateilor nas, insotiti de un stralucitor si vesel alai de feciori, merg in petit la mireasa.

Iar la celelalt “ capat “ al vietii, cand unul dintre oamenii locului trece in randul celor drepti, clopotele rasuna pentru el in satul care i-a fost loc de venire pe lume…

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MARGINIMEA SIBIULUI
Priceless ancient beauty


by Andrei Tudor

Because they built their houses on the former austrian-hungarian border, in southern Transylvania, where hills and mountains meet, people whose ancient traditions are still alive are called “ MARGINENI”.

Going west from Sibiu, a necklace of Romanian villages that fully enjoyed the spirit of the Saxon civilization make what is called for centuries “ Marginimea” (The Edge). On the eastern  side, it starts with the Boita village, on the right bank of Olt River, at the entrance of the Olt Strait. At the west Jina marks the other end, and the waters of  Sebes River border the region.

Shepherds, who live in very close communities, build pine  houses, with tall roofs, protected with spinters. Here, in peace and with firmness unchanged by the passing of time, they lived on with their crafts, including dressing leather and making wool, wich are a proof of their craftsmanship. People have been growing animals since forever. Shepherds took their sheep to the pastures, farther and farther, crossing the Danube and even to Constantinopol and the Adriatic, beyond the Tisza River, in Poland, and to the east, up to the Caucasus.

Amoung the best known villages in the Marginimea Sibiului are Saliste, Sibiel, Tilisca, Rasinari, Poiana Sibiului, Mierurea Sibiului, Poplaca, Orlat, Fantanele, Jina. Here is what some of the most venerable “ birth certificates” say: Rasinari – 1204, Talmaciu – 1318, Orlat – 1322, Saliste – 1354. In this world, philosophers and writers Emil Cioran, Constantin Noica and Octavian Goga were born.

AMONG  CITADELS AND ICONS

The villages kept their fortified churches . The one in Cisnadioara, built in 1233, towers over  the surrounding area from the so-called Citadel  Hill. The legend  says that in the village of  Tilisca, the Dacian citadel was built by King Burebista himself. Nearby stand the well known Cristian citadel, built  in 1945 , and the Calnic citadel, towerin over the village since 1250. The Salgo citadel and the fortified Saxon churhes are also worth walking in. The tourist has to stop at the Cetatea Scurta (Short Citadel) in Orlat, built in 1317, at the paper mill in the village, the oldest of its kind in South Eastern Europe – it was built in 1524 – or at the fortified church in Dobarca. Both locals, and tourists watch them with veneration.

In Sibiel, the glass-painted icons, unique around the world, hosts over 700 pieces, wonders created by the hand  of  men driven by beauty and the divine. Icons are the fruit of a tradition kept for more than two centuries in Marginime.

The oldest painted church is in Saliste, built in 1674. The wooden church in Poiana Sibiului dates back in 1771, and the one in Talmacel was erected in 1776. Furthermore, the village museum in Rasibari displays its heritage – ceramics, painted furniture, tools used by housekeepers, with their relaxing and pleasing simplicity. Folk costumes were  also brought  together  in a beautiful collection, in Gales. Also, old church books and religious items were harbored at the ortodox church’s museum.

LIFE AS A CELEBRATION

Ancient rights, made by first Romanian rulers, are still present in the conscience of the people in Marginime. Deeply and subtly knowing the nature, in which they live in harmony for centuries, they practice the natural of the things, the natural of the world. Traditions witch deep roots were   consolidated, with little  influence from the modern world. The locals are  still proudly wearing their holiday costumes, those  wonderful and elegant clothes embroided in black and white.On Sundays and for holidays, in church or on the streets, doublets and waistcoats flourish in the sunlight, with their sil-wove decorations.

Marginime lacals’ most important traditions are rediscovered during the winter holidays. ”Young  men’s carols” and the “ Young men band” are unique. Traditional dances such as “Calusarii”, “ Braul” and “Sarba” are also unique. The celebrations last  for 12 days, from  Christmas Eve until Saint John, on January 7. The carols, one  of the most ancient Romanian traditions, start with children’s songs in Marginime and later are sung by the young men bands, who embody the Bible’s wise men.

The fourth day of Christmas is marked by a large gathering: young  people from Marginime and the neighboring counties – Alba, Brasov, Valcea – meet  in Saliste for the Union dance.

Lasata Secului, the Orthodox equivalent of Mardi Gras, is marked by fires lit on hills close to the villages. On 23, locals celebrate “Sangeorz” (from Saint George), a tradition devoted to the regeneration of spring and life. “Sanzienele”, another ancient tradition, preserved unaltered by  the modern times are celebrated on June 24. And, as we are in the shepherds empire, July 20  is the day when lambs are sheared, while August 1 is  bears’s  day, Mavcovei, a day  of fasting. For weddings, the gates of the bride and groom’s houses are decorated, and when the time comes, the road for wedding attendants is closed.

The groom and the best man, togheter with a shinning group of goyful young men, are allowed to go to ask for the bride.

At the other and of life, when one of the locals dies, the bells ring for him or her in the village of birth…


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